What Is Cavitation Index in Control Valve?

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By Monica Bates

Cavitation Index is a critical parameter that plays a significant role in the performance of a control valve. It refers to the ratio of pressure drop across the valve to the vapor pressure of the liquid. In simple terms, it represents how close the fluid is to reaching its boiling point and forming bubbles or cavities.

What Is Cavitation?

Cavitation occurs when there is a sudden drop in pressure in a liquid that causes it to vaporize and form bubbles. These bubbles collapse when they enter high-pressure areas, causing shockwaves that can damage the valve components. This phenomenon can lead to erosion, vibration, and noise, and ultimately result in reduced efficiency and shortened valve lifespan.

How Is Cavitation Index Calculated?

The Cavitation Index or Cavitating Flow Coefficient (Kc) is calculated based on the following formula:

Kc = (P1 – P2) / Pv

Where P1 is the inlet pressure, P2 is the outlet pressure, and Pv is the vapor pressure of the liquid. The unit of measurement for Kc is usually expressed in percentage (%).

Interpreting Cavitation Index Values

The higher the Cavitation Index value, the greater the risk of cavitation occurring. A value above 50% indicates severe cavitation conditions, while a value below 10% suggests negligible cavitation risks.

Factors Affecting Cavitation Index

Several factors can affect Cavitation Index values, including:

Fluid Properties

The density, viscosity, temperature, and vapor pressure of fluids can significantly impact cavitation risks.

Valve Geometry

The shape and size of valve components such as disks, seats, and cages can influence flow patterns and create turbulence that promotes cavitation.

Operating Conditions

Changes in flow rate or pressure can affect the pressure drop across the valve and increase cavitation risks.

How to Mitigate Cavitation

Cavitation can be mitigated by selecting the appropriate valve type and material, modifying valve geometry, or using specialized coatings. Flow restrictions, such as orifices or diffusers, can also help reduce cavitation by limiting pressure drops.

  • Choose the right valve for your application
  • Modify valve components to reduce turbulence
  • Use coatings that resist erosion and corrosion
  • Implement flow restrictions to limit pressure drops


In summary, understanding Cavitation Index is crucial for ensuring optimal performance and longevity of control valves. By taking into account factors such as fluid properties, valve geometry, and operating conditions, engineers can select appropriate mitigation strategies and prevent cavitation-related issues.